Category Archives: alcohol and other drugs

gilbert’s syndrome affects how your body deals with alcohol and other drugs

Pharmacist survey finds ‘Medicines detox’ puts people at risk

A recent article from Net Doctor has food for thought for those of us on long term medication. Please don’t take initiatives with your medication – talk to your Doctor or Pharmacist first! :

Patients are putting themselves at risk of serious harm by believing it is beneficial to occasionally stop taking long-term medicines in order to given their body a ‘detox’, experts have warned.

Research by the National Pharmacy Association (NPA) suggests that one in five people believe a so-called ‘medicines detox’ is beneficial.

However, the NPA warned that this could be seriously harmful for patients with conditions such as diabetes, asthma or depression, as they could lose control of their illness.

The survey, which was published during Ask Your Pharmacist Week (November 7th to 13th), also revealed that nearly one in three people believe it is safe to take non-prescription medicines that have been recommended for other people.

And some wrongly assume it is okay for a child to take an adult’s medication, as long as the dosage is reduced.

NPA head of information Leyla Hannbeck said: ‘There is a lot of misunderstanding about how medicines work in your body.

‘It’s important to get the right treatment and the right advice – which you can get from your local pharmacy, often without an appointment.’

Pharmacies provide a wealth of services in addition to dispensing medicines.

These include the disposal of unwanted medicines, promotion of healthy lifestyles and support for self-care.

Pharmacists can also provide personalised advice on medicines, smoking cessation support and guidance on sexual health.ADNFCR-554-ID-800789373-ADNFCR

General anesthesia in a patient with Gilbert’s syndrome.

Having had an operation this year, with a very understanding anesthesiologist, I know that this is an area of poor knowledge in the health service, and that all the advice you as a patient can offer is helpful, and will of course help yourself. We decided that morphine would be avoided and took an approach that would mean using as few drugs as possible. This also meant I would come out of the procedure more alert and able to get going.

There has been some recent research in India which follows the clinical experience I have personally had – namely that the best outcomes are if the drugs used avoid using the enzyme that people with Gilbert’s Syndrome are deficient in:

Source

Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Tata Main Hospital (TMH), Jamshedpur, India. Nag DS, Sinha N, Samaddar DP, Mahanty PR.

Abstract

Gilbert’s syndrome, caused by relative deficiency of glucuronyl transferase is the commonest cause of congenital hyperbilirubinemia. We report anesthetic management in a case of Gilbert’s syndrome for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Avoiding drugs which use this enzyme for its metabolisim or excretion, and minimizing the stress during the perioperative period allows safe conduct of anesthesia for these patients.

Glucuronidation – where Gilbert’s Syndrome works in your liver

Glucuronidation
The UGT enzyme that people with Gilbert’s Syndrome are deficient in works in one particular part of your liver and is responsible for the part (or pathway) of your liver’s processing called glucuronidation. Glucuronidation happens when toxins are bound to glucuronic acid which is produced by the liver. Chemicals processed by glucuronidation include morphine, codeine, temazepam, testozterone (Liston, H.; Markowitz, J.; Devane, C. (2001). “Drug glucuronidation in clinical psychopharmacology”. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology).
Some herbal supplements may help glucuronidation (Effects of herbal supplements on drug glucuronidation. Review of clinical, animal, and in vitro studies. March 2011 Mohamed ME, Frye RF.Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA.)The use of herbal supplements has increased steadily over the last decade. Recent surveys show that many people who take herbal supplements also take prescription and nonprescription drugs, increasing the risk for potential herb-drug interactions. In vitro and animal studies indicate that cranberry, gingko biloba, grape seed, green tea, hawthorn, milk thistle, noni, soy, St. John’s wort, and valerian are rich in phytochemicals that can modulate UGT enzymes. However, the IN VIVO consequences of these interactions are not well understood. Only three clinical studies have investigated the effects of herbal supplements on drugs cleared primarily through UGT enzymes. The need for further research to determine the clinical consequences of the described interactions is highlighted.

Essential for Glucuronidation are the nutrients L-glutamine, aspartic acid, iron, magnesium, B3 (niacin) and B6. Thyroid should also be adequate. Cruciferous vegetables (cauliflower, cabbage, cress, bok choy, broccoli and similar green leaf vegetables) are helpful. Glucuronidation efficiency can be improved by calcium-d-glucarate. However, you have to start very gradually with the calcium-d-glucarate, and be very consistent. (http://www.healthyawareness.com/articles/about-autism/phenol-sulfotransferase-and-the-feingold-diet.aspx)

Alcohol and Gilbert’s Syndrome

GS sufferers can experience unpleasant reactions when they drink alcohol, although it doesn’t bother some people at all. Here is what happens in the body when you drink:
Alcohol is metabolized extremely quickly by the body – absorbed and metabolized before most other nutrients. About 20% is absorbed directly across the walls of an empty stomach and can reach the brain within one minute.
Once alcohol reaches the stomach, it begins to break down with the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme. This process reduces the amount of alcohol entering the blood by approximately 20%. (Women produce less of this enzyme, which may help explain why women become more intoxicated than men).

About 10% of the alcohol is expelled in the breath and urine.
Alcohol is rapidly absorbed in the upper portion of the small intestine. The alcohol-laden blood then travels to the liver via the veins and capillaries of the digestive tract, which affects nearly every liver cell. The liver cells are the only cells in our body that can produce enough of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to oxidize alcohol at an appreciable rate.
Though alcohol affects every organ of the body, it’s most dramatic impact is upon the liver. The liver cells normally prefer fatty acids as fuel, and package excess fatty acids as triglycerides, which they then route to other tissues of the body. However, when alcohol is present, the liver cells are forced to first metabolize the alcohol, letting the fatty acids accumulate, sometimes in huge amounts. Alcohol metabolism permanently changes liver cell structure, impairing the liver’s ability to metabolize fats. This is why heavy drinkers develop fatty livers.
The liver can deal with about ½ ounce of ethanol per hour (about one drink, depending on a person’s body size, food intake, etc.). If more alcohol arrives in the liver than the enzymes can handle, the excess alcohol travels to all parts of the body, circulating until the liver enzymes are finally able to process it.

Gilbert’s Syndrome and medication processing

http://www.sydpath.stvincents.com.au/tests/Gilberts.htm

Recently evidence suggests that people with Gilbert’s syndrome may show increased toxicity compared to unaffected individuals following use of medications which are metabolised by glucuronidation in the liver. This has been reported with some anti-cancer agents and also with paracetamol, where they may be more prone to toxicity after paracetamol overdose.